1. The most common measure of microbial composition utilizes_____________.
2. Researchers have recently utilized fecal metagenomes to develop the __________which is being studied for its capacity to independently predict presence of disease based on prevalence of certain microbial species.
3. There are two important features of microbiome health, where _________ is a measure of day-to-day variation and __________a measure of the ability of the microbiome to recover following a perturbation.
4. Research scientists are working to address is how to best quantify substrate availability (i.e., nutrient flow) to the microbes. An alternative to traditional quantification of nutrients in diet-microbiome studies, a researcher developed methodology to utilize__________, which proved to be a more sensitive measure of diet variability compared to nutrient analysis.
5. Miso and natto are both fermented soy foods and as such are considered _________because they can increase levels of certain bacteria in the gut.
6. Soybeans and some soy foods, in addition to increasing levels of gut bacteria with potential health benefits also contain poorly absorbed fiber and/or ________which are fuel for good bacteria in the gut.
7. Nancy is a new vegetarian seeking advice about how to increase fermented soy foods in her diet. She read an article about the potential health benefits of tempeh which is made by fermenting whole soybeans resulting in a cake-like product. She wants to add tempeh to a baked casserole. Baking at high temperatures would likely ______ the level of microbes in the tempeh.
8. More than 30 years ago, it was found that that soybean oligosaccharides can increase ________, a potentially beneficial probiotic bacteria.
9. Several studies have investigated the effects of both fermented and unfermented soymilk on the microbiota. Nancy asks which milk would be most potentially beneficial to the microbiome. Based on recent research _________soymilk outperformed______soymilk.
10. Soy foods may potentially impact the microbiota/microbiome through _______components and mechanisms.
11. Nancy asks you what clinically relevant outcomes she can expect by adding fermented and unfermented soy foods to her diet. Having read the body of research, your opinion is soy foods may potentially impact the microbiota/microbiome although at the present time______________.
12. Some soy fermented foods include all the following except: